Monday, February 20, 2017

Rise of the Little Corporal

Editor’s note: This entry is the second in a series on Napoleon. BIH recommends treading the previous entry, A brand apart, prior to this one. It reviews the origin story of the young Napoleon.

Napoleon at Toulon (1793) by Edouard Detaille
The Siege at Toulon was a key moment for Napoleon. Not only was it an affirmation of his abilities as a commander of the line, it also earned him a place within the sphere of influence by those who sought to lead France into a new era. Toulon was also the beginning of an endearment for Napoleon. During the siege, he helped to place and sight the artillery—a task reserved for the enlisted, not officers. He was also known to talk with men under his command about tactics. Thus, he was affectionately referred to as the little corporal. It signified that while Napoleon outranked men in his command, he did not behave as if her were superior.

For the year following the siege, Napoleon was picky about what he wanted for his next command, and it cost him some brand equity. It didn't help that he refused to serve in the Vendée campaign, a politically complex revolt that Napoleon wanted no part in supporting nor quelling. Indeed, France remained in turmoil. Even by 1795, the royalists hung on to the notion of restoring the monarchy. At the same time, the republicans were infighting for control of the movement. There were other, smaller factions, too. But gist of it is that France's political state was a puree, and the republicans looked to Napoleon. And on October 3rd, things turned for Napoleon and France.

The royalists in Paris revolted against the the National Convention, roughly described as a third attempt to republicanize the French Government. Paul Barras lead one of the factions supporting the Convention, and he was aware of Napoleon's leadership at Toulon. Barras assigned Napoleon to command the defense forces of the Convention. That was no easy task because "forces" is a loose term to describe the improvised army Napoleon would lead, although he had an advantage. Napoleon was in Paris in 1792 and saw the defeat of the King's Swiss Guard—he knew the key was artillery.

*Image credit  
The little corporal ordered the seizure of large cannons, which enabled Napoleon to repel attackers led primarily by royalists. The strategy worked, inflicting up to 1,400 dead on the royalist side, and forcing remaining forces to retreat. Napoleon saved the Convention, earning him notoriety and the confidence of the the new (republican) government. He was promoted to Commander of the Interior and given command of the Army of Italy—a post he had long sought.

The weirdness in all this is that Napoleon had been romancing Désirée Clary, the sister of his brother's wife. He was even engaged to her at one point. But then, Joséphine de Beauharnai enters the picture and the two were married in March of 1796. It wouldn't last. One might assume it was due to a lack of a honeymoon. Indeed, the Bonapartes' conjugal celebration was limited to two days. Then again, it was likely that it wasn't needed. Joséphine was not a prude. She was a woman reputed to have certain skills in combination with flexible morals. No doubt the marriage was previously consummated—several times, leaving Napoleon free to quickly depart for Italy.

**Image credit 
The Italian Campaign
Napoleon assumed command of the Army of Italy, where he quickly went on the offensive. His victories were swift and serial, besting forces from Sardinia and Austria with weeks. Indeed, his accomplishments lined up—the Montenotte Campaign, Siege of Mantua, and then the battles of Castiglione, Bassano, Arcole, and Rivoli. Austria's foothold in Italy wholly collapsed by January 1797. Napoleon continued deep into Austria and by March, the matter was settled via treaties. France controlled most of northern Italy along with what is now Belgium and the Netherlands.

Napoleon was refining his method. The conventional method served him well, but his understanding of mobile artillery was advanced and gave him the advantage. He also had a little Hannibal Barca in him. Napoleon liked to disguise his numbers and hide his deployments, particularly when they were near an enemy's weak spot. He also had a gutsy habit of fighting two-pronged forces from the center position. The strategy was to focus on one force's weakest line until it broke and retreated; then Napoleon would swing around and envelop the other. Risky, yes. But repeated victories came to Napoleon, earning him political clout and notoriety.

Not unlike Gaius Julius Caesar, Napoleon made it a point to extract funds and treasure from the lands he conquered. Estimates are the Army of Italy captured the modern equivalent of USD 45 million in funds, USD 12 million in precious metals and jewels, not mention the confiscation of hundreds of paintings and sculptures. Napoleon had topped off France's coffers and seized art treasures for her cultural enrichment. And quite like Caesar, his exploits helped Napoleon's swelling power.

***Image credit
Napoleon was behind a coup d'état that purged the royalists from Paris in early September of 1797. The French Republicans continued building control. However, that control was reliant on Napoleon. And about the same time as the coup, the little corporal negotiated two treaties with Austria. Essentially, that left France with one immediate opponent—Great Britain, although Napoleon knew France wasn't quite ready to take on the British. In the meantime, he had other fish to fry. But first, he returned to Paris in November of 1797.

Napoleon had become a hero of France.

*The Journée of 13 Vendémiaire, Year 4, The Saint Roch Church, Rue Saint-Honoré, Paris - Charles Monnet
**Napoleon at the Bridge of Arcole in November of 1796 - Antoine Jean Gros.
***The coup d'état of 18 Fructidor in Paris (1797) - engraving by Berthault

Sunday, January 8, 2017

A brand apart...

Editor's Note
This is the first in a series on Napoleon Bonaparte—a small man who was simply too large to cover with a single entry. 

Napoleon crossing the Alps: Jacques-Louis David -  c1803
Napoléon is a name imbued with no small amount of brand attributes. Indeed, this French leader of subtle stature was anything but subtle, and he is the source of what is referred to as, the Napoleon complex. Both celebrated and criticized, he rose to power amidst the French Revolution, and so successful were his military campaigns that he became emperor in 1804—and held it until 1814 (although there was a short, unsuccessful resurgence in 1815).

Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade, while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. These wars were an amalgamated effort composed of assaults from allied forces or individuals standing firm in order to subdue Napoleon and French power in Europe. Out of 60 battles, he won 53. His military dominance allowed Napoleon to build a large empire that ruled over most of continental Europe—at least until 1815 when he was defeated at Waterloo. Outside of modern-day France, the average person might not know much beyond the fact that Napoleon is considered one of the greatest commanders in history. Yes, his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Interestingly, however, he was also quite a reformer, whose civic legacy is just as far reaching as his military conquests. Therefore, submitted for your approval....

The French Connection
Corsica is in red, lower corner.

European lineage is, well, often convoluted. Borders in the old world sometimes seemed as fluid as water, washing over regions and towns at the whim of rulers, or the result of conquests or treaties. One minute you live on an island owned by the Republic of Genoa (on the northwest Italian coast), the next it's handed over to the French, making you French. And so it was with Napoleone di Buonaparte. Yep, the boy was Italian—not French. Some time during the 16th Century, the di Buonapartes, a minor noble family, migrated from Tuscany, through Genoa, and on to Corsica. It was there that Napoleon was born on 15 August 1769. His father, Carlo Buonaparte, was an attorney—which no doubt provided some later inspiration to his son for the Napoleonic Code. The elder di Buonaparte was also appointed Corsica's representative to the court of King Louis the XVI in 1777. All this means that Napoleon had a leg up from the start, albeit a small one, but still, he started off better than his average contemporaries.

As a boy, Napoleon was described as "rambunctious," requiring the firm hand of discipline—primarily his mother's. Nevertheless, his family's position allowed him to attend better schools, including the military academy at Brienne-le-Château. Originally it was a convent where young children were educated, but by the time Napoleon was admitted in 1779, the institution had become a branch of the Military School of Paris. He spent nearly six years at the school, completing his studies in 1784, and moving on to the main Military School of Paris.

Napoleon's first language was Corsican—which was a sub-tongue of Italian, more or less. He spoke French, but with an obvious non-French accent. Moreover, history records that his spelling in French was awful. Although he was teased by schoolmates for his Franco-linguistic shortcomings, he nevertheless read considerable amounts and, he was observed as more than competent in mathematics. That observation was made by the influential French scholar mathematician, Pierre-Simon Laplace.

Carlo di Buonaparte died a year after Napoleon arrived in Paris. Such family events have far-reaching impacts beyond emotional. In Napoleon's case, the loss of his father caused a significant downward adjustment in family revenue sources, and it forced Napoleon to complete his studies in a single year. In doing so, he became the first Corsican to graduate from the institution.

Rise of the Little Corporal

The spark igniting the Napoleon firestorm over Europe began in 1789 with the outbreak of the French Revolution. He was in Corsica and saw French forces assault his island. Napoleon wanted independence for Corsica, and he was willing to fight for it against the nation that educated him—at least to a point. The next two or three years revealed the futility of striving for Corsican sovereignty. His home island was destined for occupation and ownership by outside powers. Napoleon ceased his efforts and returned to the fold of the French army. Because he was an anti-royalist (go figure), Napoleon was given a command of "republican" volunteer forces and promoted from second lieutenant to captain. This was in spite of the fact the he had been on unauthorized leave and led a revolt against French forces on Corsica. Nevertheless, Napoleon was now all in with the republican French Army; and his first major test would come at the Siege of Toulon, France, which itself deserves a little set up.

A slight preamble to Toulon comes from Le souper de Beaucaire, which is a pamphlet that Napoleon published in mid 1793—four years into the civil war. It is based on his actual experience of discussing politics with four merchants over dinner. The gist is that one character expresses his pro-republican views, mirroring Napoleon's own. It was a hit with the pro-republican/Jacobins elite, and it earned Napoleon the favor of the Robespierre brothers, two influential republican leaders. That favor was translated into appointment as artillery commander of the republican forces at the Siege of Toulon

Map of forts near Toulon; see note below.
Toulon was the site of an insurrection by revolutionaries, but ones that favored Jacobins. The royalists moved in to replace the anti-Jacobins. The royalists forces in Toulon, those who wanted to keep a French monarchy, happened to include allies from conservative England, Spain, and a few other European monarchies. Here's the thing, Toulon sits on the southern coast of France, between Marseille and Monaco. It is a protected harbor and was of strategic naval value. To help maintain a naval force, any future France needed Toulon. Moreover, losing the port would open the door to other challenges of French ports.

Napoleon settled on a plan to put his guns on a hill overlooking the city. although he had to first capture that hill. The siege lasted from July to December of 1793. It was bloody, and Napoleon overcame incompetent officers and gunners, personal feeling about and from other officers, as well as the opposing forces. Still, the young Napoleon's assault on the hill earned him three prizes—the hill and Toulon. As a result, the 24 year old received promotion to brigadier general, and given charge of the artillery of France's Army of Italy.

Of Napoleon it was said by a fellow officer, "I have no words to describe Bonaparte's merit: much technical skill, an equal degree of intelligence, and too much gallantry ..."

Clearly, France had a new hero on the rise, and he would bring more victories and an empire.

--more to come--

Note: Source: Gregory Fremont-Barnes (main editor) - The Encyclopedia of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, page 994. Adapted from Chandler 1966.

Monday, December 19, 2016

Brand everlasting...

As we approach Christmas, and soon the Epiphany (the Christian celebration commemorating the revelation of God the Son as a human being in the Christ Child), we explore the brand that is Christianity. Controversial, enduring, inspiring, and even misappropriated—Christianity is the faith in the life, teachings and sacrifice of Jesus Christ. And for more than two millennia, this brand has persisted in its evolution and command of brand loyalty.

At the core of the Christian brand is Christ himself, Jesus of Nazareth and Son of God. Christians profess their faith that Jesus was born of a virgin, died for the forgiveness of human sin, rose from the dead, and ascended into Heaven to later return for judgment day. Those are strong attributes—meaningful to the faithful then and now. And while being born of a virgin is not unique in the history of religious faiths, it provided Jesus with divine DNA from God the Father.

Strengthening this divine heritage is his very name, underscoring the mission for which prophecy says he was sent. Jesus is basically translated to mean "Yahweh rescues."  And according to the Gospels of both Luke and Matthew in the New Testament, the angel Gabriel tells Mary and Joseph to name their child Jesus. The reason given was "because he will save his people from their sins." Right from the start this lends a redemptive attribute to Christ. Of course the title of Christ translates from Greek to mean "the anointed" and also used to translate the Hebrew term for "Messiah" into Greek. Combined that set Jesus up to be the Anointed one to deliver salvation.

Jesus has a well-documented life in the New Testament. Christians obviously put a great deal of trust into the text and it is within these chronicles of Christ's life, and the very Genesis of Christianity, that so much of the brand is found. Healing, miracles, firm resistance against human temptations, as well as the Crucifixion and Resurrection are hallmarks of Jesus' divine brand. But the more subtle of Christ's deeds seem to be those that have the most impact.

Jesus calls to Zacchaeus
Just in the company he kept, Jesus didn't associate himself with the upper crust of society. Indeed, his affiliations with those of lesser status and questionable reputation made him a target.

One example is the account of Zacchaeus from the Gospel of Luke. Simply put, Zacchaeus was a tax collector in Jericho—hated by everybody and in particular by other Jews who saw him as a traitor for working with Rome. On the day Jesus passed through town, he arrived early along the path Jesus would take, climbing a sycamore tree. Zacchaeus was a short man and would have difficulty seeing over the crowds. As Jesus passed, he looked up into the tree and called out to Zacchaeus by name and told him to come down. Jesus then announced he would visit his house, sending the crowd into shock that Jesus would associate himself such a low sort.

But so moved by the gift of Jesus' undeserved love and acceptance, Zacchaeus publicly repented and vowed to make restitution for them. This is chief among the attributes of Christ—forgiveness and embracing those who are not evil but outcast.  That's an unusual attitude for the time—one might argue even for today.

Adding to the desirability of forgiveness is the idea of an afterlife. Not all religions have a bright future for our souls. In some we are reincarnated, doomed to relive this life until we miraculously figure out how to behave in order to move on. In others there are several levels of Heaven or Hell—sounds more corporate than ethereal. And still others believe there is nothing beyond this life at all. So a Kingdom of Heaven can really resonate if you ain't tickled with the status quo.

But the deeds of Christ, including his Resurrection, were only the beginning of the Christian brand. Although let's face it, Resurrection is major since that means death can be defeated, further reinforcing that afterlife thing. Still, Christ's life was the foundation—the rock on which the church was built. From there it spread across the ancient western and near eastern worlds like the original social media.

Emperor Constantine c 302 AD
There are two specific people deserving the lion's share of credit for Christianity's facebook-like success—Constantine and Charlemagne. Nothing can pull an underground movement out from the shadows like state endorsement. Constantine was an early 4th Century Roman emperor who was responsible for exactly that. Before his rein, Christians were a persecuted lot. After all Jesus was crucified for sedition, real or not. And most of the ancient Mediterranean was pagan, whereas Christianity required reneging on many naughty but potentially fun elements of paganism. Maybe that's why Constantine waited a very long time before being baptized.

On the other side of the condemnation coin was Judaism itself—Jews didn't care for Christians because most didn't hold that Jesus was the Messiah, not to mention the fact that Christ's teaching seemingly went against the Jewish mainstream current. Add to that the whole idea that gentiles were welcome in the new faith. In other words Jesus went outside the tribe and Jews didn't appreciate it.

Roman shield with Chi Rho
Anyway, just before a battle Constantine had a vision of the Christian symbol, Chi Rho, which convinced him the Christian God was on his side. His resulting victory in what was thought a hopeless battle inspired Constantine to lift the persecutions of Christians. And he would spend an enormous effort for the remainder of his rein in supporting and spreading the faith.

Skip about 500 years to the end of the Dark Ages and we get Charlemagne. He was a conquering emperor—he was French, so go figure. Known then as Charles I, Charlemagne managed to unite much of Europe. In doing so, and as a good Medieval Christian (a somewhat disreputable time for the faith), he forced the Christianization of the Saxons, the Danes, and the Slavs, while banning their native paganism under threat of painful death. Charlemagne integrated all these people into his empire, while simultaneously integrating select pagan traditions into Christianity. This had the effect of easing brand acceptance by utilizing certain advantageous elements to further spread the faith.

Gold bust of Charlemagne
It is during the span of time between Constantine and Charlemagne that the cross really becomes the standard for Christianity—a reminder of Christ's sacrifice and Resurrection. By this time the Catholic Church established itself as the dominant authority on everything from western politics and society to science and medicine. The cross was on everything you could affix it to, draw it on, weave it into, or incorporate into its very making. Biblically speaking, the cross spread like locusts.

Christ is an everlasting brand. Even if you set aside the divinity of Jesus and look at him with a strict historical perspective, it is accepted fact that he existed. Jesus was a Rabbi … a teacher. And Roman records confirm that Pontius Pilate crucified him for sedition against the Empire. His impact is no less than profound. Jesus is even recognized by other faiths as being at the very least a prophet. These include Judaism, Islam, and the Bahá'í faiths. It may be an oxymoron, but Jesus was a conqueror whose weapon was ... forgiveness.

Therefore, submitted for your approval...

1. Determine the most appropriate brand-positioning attribute.
Forgiveness and compassion are the leads here. In his life, Jesus was noted for consorting with social rejects—the unwashed, the tax collector, and those of questionable reputation. He professed not a God who favored the rich and powerful, but a Father who loved all His children and promised a place especially for the meek and the poor.
2. Devise a distinctive way to articulate the brand position and develop a brand personality customers can use to introduce the brand.
He died for our sins ... enough said.
3. Establish graphic standards.

Early Christianity used more than a couple of symbols. Emperor Constantine saw a vision of the Chi Rho (the first two letters of Christ in Greek). which inspired him to take up God's standard and spread the church across the known world. The fish is a popular sign even today. But very early on it was code among a persecuted people. Eventually, Christianity settled on the cross as reminder to the faithful of Christ's sacrifice for all sins, and a death from which Jesus rose. This remains the most common Christian symbol today.

4. Implement internal branding programs to reward employees for behaving in ways that are consistent with the brand personality.
This is where things get sticky in Christianity. Early Christianity was more "advential" in that they truly believed the risen Jesus would return any moment. Plus there were the persecutions. So early Christians endured and sacrificed—walking paths not wholly dissimilar to Christ's. 
Then there is the less pleasant period of the Church when it becomes less about the divine and more about the corruption of power—the heretic trials, inquisitions, Crusades, and the suppression of knowledge. The reward for good behavior, as prescribed by church authority, was that you wouldn't be skinned alive, boiled, flogged, or some such unpleasant treatment. If so, then you were being purified for Heaven. You're welcome!
However, the real incentive for living a life in the footsteps of Jesus are in his root message: 
Heaven awaits those who follow in Christ's footsteps.
Stated another way: "The way to the Father is through me."
5. Consistently and uniquely execute the branding program.
Christ was most certainly consistent in his behavior. And his message for following the brand was direct and simple: 
Love one another as I have loved you.

(Originally posted during January 2012, with re-posts in 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016)